Michel Leclerc (2017), C1q Tumor Necrosis Factor Gene Family In Asterias Rubens. Int J Biotech & Bioeng. 3:6, 142-143. doi:10.25141/2475-3432-2017-6.0142
C1q tumor necrosis factor related protein 4 gene( a new cytokine) was recently discovered in the sea star genome.Its genome and role
were presented in a recent report
New C1q tumor necrosis factor genes were also found in the Asterias rubens genome. They may be considered as adipokines for the first
ones and complement activator for the third one. These genes have been discovered in mammal ‘s genomes and described, for the first
time, in an Invertebrate: the sea star Asterias rubens.
TNF; cytokins; sea star; Invertebrates.
It is important to speak, first of all, of adipokine biology. Adipokine
polypeptides produced by adipocytes, include adinopectin and
many cytokines of the immune system, such asTNF. They have
potent autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functions ( Ref.1).
They are characteristics of Vertebrates as complement activators
we have, nevertheless , discovered in an Invertebrate: the sea star
Asterias rubens (Ref.2).
Complement activator is an important component of the innate
immune response against viral infection and also shapes adaptative
immune responses. VACCC complement control protein C3
vaccinia virus: a complement control protein (VCP) plays a role
as modulator of the complement activation in mouse (Ref.3): it
was found also in Asterias rubens genome when compared to
Materials and methods :
Sea stars were obtained from the Biology Institute (Gothenburgh
Immunizations to HRP, genomic studies were already described
After ligation of adapters for Illumina's GSII sequencing
system, the cDNA was sequenced on the Illumina GSII platform
1.100 bp from one side of the approximately 200 bp fragments
sequences were assembled using Velvet (Ref.5).
First, results in non-immunized sea stars were given:
Control:Contig13514 sp|Q9ES30|C1QT3_MOUSE Complement
C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 OS=Mus musculus
GN=C1qtnf3 PE=2 SV=1
Control:Contig3127 sp|Q8K479|C1QT5_MOUSE Complement
C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 5 OS=Mus musculus
GN=C1qtnf5 PE=1 SV=1
Second, results in HRP sea stars which have been immunized to
HRP were presented:
Complement C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 OS=Mus
musculus GN=C1qtnf3 PE=2 SV=1
Complement control protein C3 OS=Vaccinia virus (strain
Copenhagen) GN=C3L PE=1 SV=1
Discussion . Conclusion :
The dispatching of genes is different from a point of view of sea star
immunization to HRP (Horse-radish peroxydase). So the VACCC
Complement control protein C3 was only found in immunized sea
star genome. The question is: Is it the fact of immunization which
induces such gene in sea star? In all our experiments which present
such phenomenon, we have not given elaborated responses. In
the present case we consider that it is a mystery for us. So further
studies would be necessary to clarify the question.
We just may say that the found genes are usually described in
Vertebrates. Two out of three could be considered as cytokines of
The TNF family genes.
The third one plays a role in innate immune response and adaptative
one: it's a regulator of Complement.The presence of a complement
system is clearly established in Asterias rubens
It is the first time we analyse such sophisticated genes belonging to
the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family, in an Invertebrate
The authors appreciate the help of everyone who took part in the study.
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