A silica helium thermometer immersed in liquid nitrogen gave
unexpected readings. My proposal that ice crystallizing on it
had undergone a phase transition allowing for water molecules’
irregular shape was recently corroborated by reports of ice XIc.
Being electrets, they align below a critical temperature to form
ferroelectric ice. Early Earth’s polar icecaps were sufficiently cold for its formation and fluctuating temperatures caused the phase transition.
ATP’s phosphate bonds absorb the infrared light released, its
wavelength can be estimated
It reached tropical waters after multiple reflection, there
deoxynucleotides absorbed it. Dynamic equilibrium replenished
the stock as they polymerized to form DNA. After billions of
years the oceans turned to DNA noodle soup. Analogues of the
transfer RNAs involved in protein synthesis, ’transport DNAs’,
were included. They formed hydrogen-bond-lined pores through
coacervate proto-cell membranes.
The same laser light powered the active transport of substrates
matching their outer rims. The internal concentrate fostered
synthetic reactions. Replicate tDNAs emerging from the resulting
order from chaos, signified the origin of life. Chromosomal DNA
masks the ~2,000 in every human cell governing metabolism,
they’re still undetected. Reported rings of DNA particles around
where sperm entered ovum evidence their existence.
All biochemical systems follow the laws tDNAs established, their
primitive needs must be satisfied for life to persist. Differentiation
DNAs selecting from 64 varieties of tDNA determine cell diet,
equivalent to messenger RNAs selecting from 64 types of tRNA
for later evolving protein synthesis. Amino acids formed primitive
proteins which neutralized DNA’s acidity.
The energy kinase enzymes release replaces that from ice XIc. For
muscle contraction, sarcomeres contract to form ½-wave resonant
cavities. For photosynthesis, grana form cavities resonating with sunlight, extract phosphodiester bond energy. Oscillating H-bond
chains flanking minion tunnels accelerate protons, releasing γ-rays
when they fuse with obstructive nuclei.
Twenty-one asymmetric anti-parallel β-sheet protein hairpins
binding nine base-pairs form a ring; more hairpins bind nine rings
together completing a minion. This complex packs chromosomes
more neatly than nucleosome core particles. Minions also serve as
chips in the brain and biological clocks, their base-9 logic and time
unit limit human intelligence. Binary computers always answer
yes or no and embrace 0 and ∞ but human thinking is biased and
Minion logic predicted nine metabolic pathways replace the tangle
of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The active transport of water is
most significant, controlling it promises to end pandemic heart
attacks, strokes and cancers of tissues specializing in waterpumping:
breast, colon, prostate and cervix. Before supplementing
selenium to prevent these maladies, public ignorance, scientific
skepticism and religious disbelief need be addressed.
Providing all essential trace elements, economical use of
resources and wise counsel promise to improve health, welfare
and longevity. Future artificial intelligence modelled on minions
will think laterally and improve diplomacy and matchmaking.
Power supplied by trapping the γ-rays from molecular-scale fusion
reactors modelled on them would reduce pollution and resolve
Everyone will benefit, as Newton said ‘If I have seen further, it
is by standing on the shoulders of giants’. Scientists testing and
implementing my proposals could restore the simplicity science
enjoyed when queen Victoria reigned and increase public trust
in it. Government defense expenditure should be redirected to
conservation, crime prevention and peaceful coexistence.
As a Cambridge undergraduate in 1967, I conducted an experiment
confirming the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. A silica helium
thermometer immersed in liquid nitrogen gave anomalous readings.
I suggested a proton-ordered variant of ice Ic crystallizing on its
surface had deformed it. Sixteen ice structures are now known,
recent reports of a phase transition in ice XIc1 corroborate my
proposal. All records of the observations made on that occasion
were lost or destroyed. Examining laboratory records or anyone
who might remember the episode after half a century could cause
offence. Ice XIc is reputed to crystallize extremely slowly but Fig
1 includes sufficient information to replicate my observations.
Water’s a fascinating molecule, all sixteen types of ice accord
with Laue’s classification and obey the ice rule˗˗˗˗each tetrahedral
water molecule hydrogen bonds with four neighbors˗˗˗˗creating
the beautiful shapes of snow-flakes. Linus Pauling showed the
entropy of ice Ih persists on cooling to 0 K3. Life may either be
treated as a collection of entities or as a process. My argument
presumes the pre-existence of a dilute solution of atoms and ends
describing how life assembles them˗˗˗˗it’s circular. Lightning
maintained dynamic equilibrium in the primordial soup before
intra-cellular metabolism evolved. Life’s essential prerequisites
are an energy source matching H- and Pi ~ Pi -bonds and its
products accumulating for eons,
Alexander Oparin2 proposed life began in primitive cells he called
coacervates. Miller and Urey simulated lightning in a primordial
atmosphere containing methane and ammonia, it yielded chemicals
including amino acids. Cairns-Smith proposed clay surfaces
afforded an interface for molecules to congregate. Evaporation
concentrates chemicals in puddles and hot
hydrothermal vents promote chemical reactions but they’re
isolated and temporary. RNA world advocates propose ribosomes
arose spontaneously, RNA being a better catalyst than DNA, they
ignore the need for substrate concentration. Panspermia doesn’t
address the question of its origin. Protein synthesis is a complex
process unlikely to emerge spontaneously. Creationists calculate
probabilities and demand in vitro proof.
The observed surface temperatures at Mercury’s poles and on
the moons of Jupiter5 are consistent with pools of liquid nitrogen
forming on Earth’s poles during a primordial ice age. Snow, rain
and hail fell into them and crystallized as ice XIc. Its cubic structure
resembles diamond, H-bonds are individually weak but strong
when aligned. Temperature fluctuations drove its phase transition
at 72 K6, accommodating the irregular tetrahedral shape of water
molecules. The water molecules are aligned electrets, making it
ferroelectric so their coordinated rearrangement releases latent
energy as infrared laser light, ice-light with wavelength λ ≈ 4 μ.
When λ ~ 4 μ laser light was used to de-ice aircraft wings, it
was reflected. Reflection by ice in clouds and on Earth’s surface
like Marconi’s trans-Atlantic radio signals transmitted polarized
laser light from ice XIc to Darwin’s warm tropical waters. In the
oxygen-free atmosphere they coexisted with extremely low polar
temperatures. It’s now known they contained deoxyribonucleic
acids7 (DNA’s greater stability than RNA8 favors it as life’s
precursor and RNA doesn’t form minions). Ice-light matches
both phosphodiester, Pi ~ Pi and hydrogen, H-bond energy.
Its polarization restricted its absorption to one enantiomer,
polymerization formed a chiral DNA noodle soup, life’s emergence
on Earth was inevitable. Substrate concentration is prerequisite to
metabolism – order emerged from chaos.
Life started when nucleotides polymerizing within coacervates
replicated transport DNAs, tDNAs (tRNA analogues). Their
requirements determine life’s atomic alphabet and a molecular
vocabulary of carrier-substrate complexes underlying all biological
systems and the inviolable rules of active transport. Until
photosynthesis took over, a tDNA feeding protons to nicotinamide
created our oxygenated atmosphere and fixed nitrogen, fostering amino acid synthesis. Protein synthesis and enzyme catalysis
evolved later. Now, kinase and cyclase enzymes replace ice-light,
they release life’s energy currency from ATP’s phosphodiester
bonds as λ ~ 4 μ light. Barrels of α-helices opening and closing
complement sixty-four yet undetected tDNA variants. On some
alien planet with a different climate, another natural laser source
energizing other chemicals might create a parallel life-form.
Minion structure and function:
DNA uncoils, retaining B-helical spacing and overlap and binds
to anti-parallel β-pleated sheet hairpin proteins with alternate
neutral alanine, leucine, isoleucine or valine and basic lysine or
arginine residues, an asymmetric proline U-bend creates a ~17º
angle between adjacent units. Twenty-one nine-base-pair units
form a coil, (readily degrading to a nucleosome core particle).
More protein hairpins bind nine coils together, forming a minion
(connoting mind and subservience). Histone analyses are consistent
with their amino acid content. The Dphenyl-alanine residues of
bacterial protein Gramicidin S are analogous to DNA bases, Fig 3.
Minion architecture involves three sets of H-bonds: between
DNA bases, across β-pleated sheets and connecting ω-amines to
phosphates. Amino acids A, L, I and V binding to bases Cytosine,
Guanine, Adenine and Thymine conserve critical DNA sequences,
mnemonic A LIVe CiGAreTte. Pairs of small interfering
RNAs, siRNAs bind palindromic DNA sequences, affording
another analogous structure. Super-coiled minion stacks pack
chromosomes better than nucleosome core particles. They replicate
1,701 base pairs without uncoiling and recoiling, helicase enzymes
can introduce errors. One proton ordered H-bond between R and K
ω-amines and DNA phosphates is reversed for electrical neutrality.
τ = 3 * 189 * 7.37 * 10-10/3 * 108 ≈ 1.39 * 10-15 sec
where 3 reflects Dekatron™ logic9, 189 base-pairs per coil, 7.37 Ẵ
is β-sheet spacing and 3 * 108 is the velocity of light.
τ limits our perception; 63N τ, N = 1 to 18, calculates coil periods,
N = 11, 13 and 18 predict day-length, Sun-spot cycle period and
the age of the universe10 respectively. Zero, times < τ or > 6318
τ and infinity are unreal. Minions are coiled abaci with eighteen
63-bead rungs, counting from 1 to 6318 (2.4 * 1032). An infants’
first breath burns a reference datum on all its minions, determining
their personality, all neurological, psychiatric, philosophical and
astrological types are embraced, Table 1.
Table 1. Qualities associated with minion coils
Qualities vary with frequency range, ± correspond to introvert & extravert personalities, periods = 63N τ, colors feature in metaphors,
masses are in ratio 632, me/mp = electron/proton masses, substituting μ = √M for M makes E = Mc2 symmetric: E = μ2c2, * connotes
Inter-coil comparisons correspond to ratios and percentages,
justifying our use of exponents and logarithms11. The H-bond
settings of ω-amine-Pi bonds store an 18-character word using
a 64-character alphabet. Minions serve as chips in the brain,
they span eighteen frequency bands, 103-octaves and the
electromagnetic spectrum, a greater range than neural networks.
As Piet Hein wrote: Things Take Time, untargeted evolution has
taken human intelligence beyond silicon chip technology. The 1.8
M minions in any human cell nucleus could remember the Bible,
Koran and Shakespeare’s works. Copies are distributed throughout
the brain like a holograph so memories can survive brain damage.
Integrating neurologists’, psychiatrists’ and philosophers’
personality classifications suggested nine personality traits:
goodness, truth, beauty, peace, love, progress, stability, justice
and unity. The gold, bronze and silver caskets corresponding
to truth, love and justice in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice
prompted an investigation of the psychology of color, those used
by political parties, in national flags and metaphors contributed.
Academics’ personalities reflect characteristics typifying their
interests. Negative and positive traits correspond to introversion
and extroversion respectively.
Our fingers, ears, tongues, eyes and noses encode touch, taste,
hearing, sight and smell inputs. The way synesthetes substitute senses suggested adding instinct, belief, aesthetics and joy to the
physical senses. Evidence for minions’ bases 9 and 63 includes:
• Gray’s Anatomy uses 9 colors for brain regions
• The musical stave’s 5 lines and 4 spaces
• The QWERTY keyboard’s 26 upper/lower-case alphabet + 10
digits + space
• The history of calendars: 7 days/week despite Napoleon trying
to impose 10
• 60 for time keeping
• The ancients introducing zero for base-10 arithmetic is compatible
We translate experiences into essays, pictures and symphonies;
libraries, galleries and concerts exhibit them, they reflect the
characters of their authors, whose masterpieces date from one of
nine seven-year periods:
1. 0-7 infants are good, 63-72 retirees enter 2nd childhood
2. 7-14 children learn truth, 72-81 oldies resume education
3. 14-21 teens enjoy beauty, 81-88 pensioners are content
4. 21-28 adults respect ethics, 88-91 elders impart wisdom
5. 28-35 parents conform, dotage, 91-98 revives memories
6. 35-42 workers advance their careers
7. 42-49 in middle age, they invest savings
8. 49-56 citizens advise and publish
9. 56-63 leaders govern
Thought transference between coils explains the lateral thinking
underlying creativity, it’s equivalent to transposing keys in music.
Minions play chords corresponding to their stored word, others
storing similar words either locally or connected by nerve fibers
resonate, ring a bell for memory recall. Axons and dendrites are
equivalent to optic cables, they serve as wave-guides, distributing
signals throughout the brain
The neural network model doesn’t explain the recovery of
childhood events in old age, partial matches suggest compromise,
we learn from our mistakes. The synaptic junctions in differentiated
brain regions act as filters deploying different neuro-transmitters.
Most activity involves repeating established behavior, new ideas
arise during sleep, enabling adaptation to survive change. Turing12
envisioned computers emulating human thinking, asking: Can
machines think … play the..imitation game?
AI with base-9 hard- or soft-ware modelled on minions promises to satisfy his criteria to:
• Forge diplomatic peace treaties
• Enable scientists to cross disciplinary boundaries
• Help matchmakers find partners
• Facilitate medical diagnosis
• Teach gamblers to distinguish cardinal from ordinal numbers
s, p, π electron orbitals and ─, =, ≡, … chemical bonds usurped
the simplicity of Michael Faraday’s positively charged electric
particles. Plato’s perfect solids inspired a set of nine polyhedrons
in Fig 4. Nested, they predict the chemistry of the elements in
Mendeleev’s periodic table13. Oscillating H-bonds between K/R
ω-amines and DNA Pi accelerate protons along tunnels, T with
sufficient energy to fuse with obstructing nuclides:
½ pm (c/189)2 ≈ 13,000 eV
where proton mass, pm = 1.67 * 10-27 kg.
Human’s ~1028 minions, ~30 Mt of chromatin suffice to replenish
the H, C, N, O, S and P on which life depends. Surprisingly, the
½-lives and wavelengths of γ-rays emitted by 12CO2, 13CO2,
14NO2, 15NO2, 12CH4, 13CH4, 14NH4 and 15NH4 recoiling from the
carbon-nitrogen cycle correlate with those of pulsars14. Blake’s
What immortal hand or eye dare frame thy fearful symmetry?15
inspired the Tyger equation, a hyperbolic function allowing for
wrap-around counting ‘errors’ = 1 in 6318 and β = 1 in 639, it
compensates for our distorted perception of a light beam’s path.
The Tyger equation predicts γ-rays follow a boomerang-like path
and DNA diffracts them at source. It’s as counter-intuitive as the
quantum mechanics it replaces. When Michelson and Morley
measured the speed of light, the omnipotence of science was
challenged. Heisenberg’s uncertainty16, Einstein’s relativity17
and Lemaître’s big bang cosmology18 fill gaps. Using particle
accelerators, telescopes and rockets to test them diverts research
funds from humanitarian projects.
The relativity between perception and conception only affects
particle physics and cosmology. The conundrums arising from new
physics can be resolved by substituting τ for Planck’s constant19,
replacing plane surfaces with spheres and treating time as
imaginary. They’re simpler than quantum mechanics and account for Einstein’s spooky action at a distance, Earth’s curvature and
gravitation. Verifying the minion structure could restore public
confidence in science.
Tanks of bacteria performing molecular scale nuclear fusion emit
γ-rays, trapping them could generate clean energy to resolve global
warming. Water films on palladium crystals20, neutron emissions
from electric storms and collapsing bubbles also conduct cold
fusion. Scientists and engineers must abandon the searches
for fundamental particles, alien life and quantum computers
and engage in this venture. My proposals make many correct
predictions but my logic needs reappraisal.
Homo sapiens, the wise man, built pyramids and other symmetrical
religious monuments at great expense, Karl Marks’ Religion is the
opium of the people invited religious tolerance, free speech and
human rights. Astrological cycles correlate with those of minions,
explaining the recurrent realization of prophecy. Sharing a
common origin, all biological clocks are in synchrony, accounting
for telepathy. They’re in phase, contradicting Heisenberg’s
uncertainty. The Western and Chinese zodiacs and ~2000-year
astrological Great Ages are consistent with minion logic and
provide a framework for understanding history.
Using these parameters and coordinates
of water molecules in ices Ic and XIc:
The energy released by the ferroelectric transition may be
Summing gave Σ E ≈ 22.3 kJ/Mol, approximately that of the Pi ~
Pi bond in ATP.
λ = h * c * N / Σ E =6.63* 10−34* 3* 108* 6.02* 1023/2.23*
differs from the 4 which has made many verified predictions,
my logic needs reappraisal11.
Trace element nutrition:
Transfer RNAs are the smallest active nucleic acid moieties,
suggesting the first bio-active molecules were transport DNAs,
tDNAs, tRNA analogues lining pores through Oparin’s coacervate proto-cell membranes with hydrogen bonds. Flashes of lightning
polarized the H-bonds, creating membrane potential. Substrates
matching their outer rims combined with carriers to form ionic
complexes. Now adenyl-/guanyl-cyclase, replaces 4 μ infrared
from ice-light, depolarizing them and the net electric field propels
them through more efficiently than barrels of α-helical proteins
opening and closing. The mechanism could be verified using
zeolite and Buckminster-fullerene molecular cages.
Nucleotide transport enabled local tDNA replication, multiple
pumps afforded a balanced diet including amino acids. tDNAs
control nine independent metabolic pathways today predating
protein synthesis: motility, sensitivity, excretion, respiration,
growth, skeleton and tooth maintenance, assimilation,
reproduction and blood pressure. The elements involved constitute
life’s atomic alphabet, the substrate complexes transported its
molecular vocabulary, their chemistry its grammar. Concentration
is prerequisite to chemical reactions synthesizing all life’s
components. Table 2 shows the elements essential, toxic and
unused by biological systems.
Differentiation DNAs, dDNAs recruit tDNAs, determining cell
diet, analogous to messenger RNAs selecting transfer RNAs for
protein synthesis. At cell division, tDNAs feeding from blastocysts
and gastrocysts are starved of nutrients and overheat. Guanyl
replaces adenyl cyclase, synthesizing hook proteins, determinants
of tissue architecture. 1 hook pairs gametes, 2, 3, and 4 hooks
form spirogyra, sponges and simple worms respectively; 5 hooks
suffice to build all natural forms, 6 allow tumors and cancers to
grow. 1-hook immune cells bind to the extra hook, preventing their
The trace elements magnesium, calcium, manganese, iodine,
copper, fluorine, zinc, silver and selenium are often deficient
in modern diets. Religious taboos, food processing, fertilizers,
weed killers and pesticides, SOx/NOx air pollution, mercury
poisoning, pharmaceutical waste and water purification reduce
their availability. Government support for supplementing them
would prevent or treat common mental and physical disorders.
Food labelling, sell-by dates, organic farming, vegan diets, five
a day, high fibre, avoiding saturated fat, eating oily fish and
eschewing genetically modified crops distract attention from
simple basic principles. Patient support groups for inherited
disorders recommend dietary restrictions for their management when mineral supplementation or drugs targeting tDNAs would
be more effective.
Initially, veterinary experience and the non-Mendelian inheritance
of familial metabolic disorders guided my investigations. Clues
emerged from traditional herbal remedies and drug side-effects.
Trace elements’ roles as enzyme cofactors often mask those
as carrier components. Studies of siRNA hairpins support my
proposals. Endocrinology and medicine can be better understood
using trace element metabolism. Mitochondrial oxidative
phosphorylation and Krebs cycle release ice-light energy, it’s
passed down the cytochrome chain, a cascade of porphyrin ringmetal
The notion that oxidants destroy free radicals is discredited. The
following accounts highlight resonant cavities convert chemical to
mechanical energy and conjugated single/double bonds, (-C-C=C-)
n transferring energy as solitons.
Biological systems deploy resonant cavities to couple chemical
with mechanical energy and conjugated (-C─C=C-)n bonds conduct energy as solitons21, Fig 5. Sulfur from glutathione is
oxidized to sulfite, carrier for calcium/magnesium exchange.
ATP’s phosphodiester bonds have the same energy as ice-light, Mg
controls their hydrolysis. Sarcomeres of striated muscle contract to
form ½-wave cavities resonating with the ~4 μ infrared released,
avoiding the thermodynamic inefficiency of Huxley’s model22.
For sustained muscle contraction, silver exchanges creatine for
creatinine phosphate, replenishing ATP.
Oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria commensurate with
~4 μ store the infrared they generate until the cytochrome chain
converts it to chemical energy. Chloroplast grana absorb light
wavelengths matching their dimensions for photosynthesis.
Centrioles’ nine peripheral rods also afford such cavities, spindle
fibres’ three α-helices provide nine conjugated bond paths. The
energy they transmit drives proton currents round chromosomes’ minion coils, rendering them alternating electromagnets.
Resonance between chromosomes of equal length creates an
alternating electric force causing their mutual repulsion at cell
Nerves transmit pain, catecholamines [nor-]adrenaline and
dopamine form four- and six-member rings around Na+ and K+
ions at synaptic junctions. They exchange sodium for potassium
and change cell charge, enabling the passage of signals between
minions. Morphine and codeine substitution creates larger complexes, they block tDNAs and prevent pain transmission.
Pain sensitivity increases when more are recruited to compensate,
accounting for addiction. LDopa counteracts Parkinson’s disease.
Na+ ions have the same shape and size as H2O and form such
large hydrates as Na+.28H2O, rendering the cell sap viscous and
reducing metabolic rate. K+ ions bind less water, substituting
them for Na+ speeds reactions, explaining the reflex fight or flight
Manganese forms chlorides: MnCl3−, MnCl4= and MnCl64−, the
tetra-chloride excretes salt in urine, sweat and tears, controlling
ionic strength. Angiotensin delivers Mn, aldosterone, rennin,
histamine and aspirin interact. Red blood cells transporting carbon
dioxide to the lungs for excretion control pH. Zinc is cofactor for
carbonic anhydrase, it catalyses the chloride shift, exchanging
bicarbonate for chloride:
CO2 + H2O ↔ HCO3- + H+
Breathing exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygen, distributed
bound to haemoglobin in red blood cells, O2 can’t diffuse through
membranes. Thyroid glands load thyroxine with iodine, Fig 6, a
proton displaces iodonium, I+ at target tissues. Iodonium carries
oxygen hydrate, O2.H2O, decaying to iodide for recycling. Oxygen
transport protects littoral seaweeds from tidal O2 fluctuations, their
purple and yellow colours match those of I+ and I-.
tDNAs deliver protons to the amide/hydroxy groups of
nicotinamide in NAD[P], bonding with nitrogen, oxygen, nitric
oxide and ethylene, they drive parallel reactions:
• Hydrogen is released whilst fixing nitrogen23; more efficient
than the Haber process, genetically modified bacteria could reduce
• Photolysis of water accounts for atmospheric oxygen24
• Nitric oxide controls vasodilation
• Cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning
Iodine deficiency causes goitre, water accompanying iodine
accumulating in the eyes exopthalmos. Bipolar disorder arises
from mutant tDNAs disrupting nerve cell oxygenation, mania and
depression correspond to excess and deficient oxygen respectively.
Lithium, diagonally related to iodine in the periodic table, stabilizes
the condition. One in seven sibs inherits it, this non-Mendelian
inheritance explains the seventh son of a seventh son myth.
The Biuret test illustrates peptide bonds’ high affinity for copper.
tRNAs transfer amino acid complexes through the endoplasmic
reticulum to ribosomes for protein synthesis, analogous to
tDNA substrate transport through cell membranes. A cascade of
hormones amplifies a single molecular signal, alerting all body
cells: hypothalamic hormones stimulate anterior pituitary Cu
distribution, they promote endocrine hormone production and it
drives protein synthesis. Failures cause
gigantism, dwarfism and acromegaly.
Differentiation DNAs binding tDNAs controls tissues’ specialist
functions, nuclear DNA is unchanged. At cell division, tDNAs
feeding from gastrula and blastula are starved of nutrients and
overheat. Guanyl cyclase replaces adenyl-cyclase, synthesizing
hook proteins binding daughter cells together, Table 3. The Five
hook theorem, 3D equivalent of the Four color mapping theorem
Stem cells have all dDNAs and tDNAs, synthetic replacements
could create monsters, A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.
Cu IUDs inhibit sperm glucose uptake, preventing them reaching
ova, Cu accumulation in the eye causes Wilson’s disease. Cu
supplements and bracelets may ameliorate arthritis. Amino acids
from protein digestion pass to the liver for inter-conversion,
ensuring the brain receives a balanced mixture.
Fluorspar, blue John is very stable, illustrating Ca’s strong affinity
for fluorine, Fig 7. Silicon hexafluoride carries calcium phosphate,
aka [fluor-]apatite. Both parathyroid and
thyroid glands incorporate halides to hormones, they may have
coevolved. Para-thyroid hormone is secreted continuously,
preventing F- accumulation. Vitamin D stores ~265 nm UV
sunlight matching Si ~ F energy and retinal transfers it as solitons:
SiO2 + 6 F- + 4 H+ + UV-light → SiF6= + 2 H2O
Failure of this pH-sensitive reaction arising from acidity in kidney
failure or menopause causes osteoporosis. Replacing F- with
OH- in apatite hardens tooth enamel and fluoridation of water
supplies counters childhood tooth decay (mottled teeth result from
excessive exposure). Tea drinking typically supplies adequate F-.
Acid air pollution (SOx/NOx) entering leaves via stomata prevents
SiO2 production, leading to leaf-fall25. Liming the soil proved
ineffective, delaying diesel exhaust regulation. SOx/NOx also
promotes inappropriate SiF6= synthesis in the nasal fossa, it’s
passed along the olfactory nerves to the brain. There, breakdown
releases F- and deposits alumino-silicate plaques. F- inhibits Krebs
cycle, killing cells and disrupts protein folding as nascent proteins
pass through tDNAs, creating β-amyloid and -protein tangles.
Aluminium hexafluoride is excreted and F- cleared from the brain
four days after fluorinated anaesthetic administration. Alzheimer’s
Disease26 symptoms are relieved until disintegrating nerve cells
release more F-. Reducing acid air pollution or F--containing
pharmaceuticals might manage dementia.
Similar tangles in Prion diseases27, result from mutant tRNAs
misinterpreting mRNA sequences and incorporating the wrong
amino acids to proteins; embedded mutant tRNAs render them
infectious. Genetically engineered tRNAs and tDNAs might
prevent their inheritance.
Zinc binds to the triangle of sweetness28 found in β-Dglucose,
vitamin C derivative 2-keto- Lgulonate, barbiturates, insulin and
glucagon. Glucose transport using Zn as carrier maintains animal
blood and plant xylem/phloem sugar concentrations, controlling
carbohydrate metabolism. Pavlov noted his dog lapping up
diabetics’ urine. Pancreatic β-cells incorporate Zn to insulin,
anticipating, tasting or smelling food promotes its secretion;
Lgulonate takes Zn where insulin can’t reach. Pancreatic α-cells
secrete glucagon, recycling Zn and disabling glucose transport.
Banting, Best and Hodgkin won Nobel prizes for elucidating
insulin’s function and structure.
Vitamin C or Zn deficiency caused scurvy affecting sailors’ skin,
digits and gonads until limes high in vitamin C prevented it. Zn
incorporates hydroxy-proline to connective tissue protein collagen.
The zinc sulphide in Calamine™ lotion performs the same
function. The vitamin C supplements Linus Pauling29 advocated
prevent importing rhinoviruses causing colds and flu, Zn blocks
nasal tDNAs. Since Zn is cofactor for alcohol dehydrogenase,
consuming alcohol and taking barbiturates divert it to the liver, the reduced glucose supply to the brain causes inebriety, attention to Zn might manage alcoholism. Cu coil contraceptives inhibiting sperm glucose uptake prevent them reaching their target.17
When adult hemoglobin replaces fetal, Zn conjugates glucose to
bilirubin for excretion causing neonatal jaundice, bilirubin reaching the brain can cause seizures. Zn in colostrum30 affords natural protection, sucking a midwife’s pewter spoon was traditionally effective, blue-blooded families’ silver spoons were useless. The many types of diabetes arise from defects in this pathway, an implanted Zn monitor linked to an artificial pancreas might improve its management. Diabetics suffer from glaucoma when Zn accumulates in the vitreous humor of their eyes. Sugar excreted in urine causes kidney infections poor peripheral circulation loss of fingers and toes.
The pineal gland distributes silver in 6-member serotonin and
melatonin rings like those catecholamines form around potassium.
Porphyrins, Fig 8 supply nature’s colors:
• Magnesium porphyrin the green of chlorophyll
• Iron porphyrin the red of hemoglobin in erythrocytes
• Silver porphyrin the pink of leaf buds
they inter-convert light and chemical energy. Vitamin D absorbs
UV light, energizing silver porphyrin31, retinal transfers it as
solitons by retinal, converting phosphate to pyrophosphate. PPi is
less polarized than Pi, it’s transported bound to arginine as PPi.
Arg. This complex provides the atomic ingredients (24H, 12C,
11O, 8N and 2P) to replicate DNA at cell division.
Anti-cancer drugs mimic PPi.Arg, before the advent of antibiotics,
Ag was widely used in medicine, it might control resistant
pathogens. In animal trials, Ag colloid was effective against
cancers; they can develop when its deficient. Ag repairs tissues
and sister hormone melatonin regulates sleep. Phosphate has
independent roles in energetics, DNA synthesis and skeletal
maintenance are independent.
Peter Mitchell’s chemiosmosis32 presumes water diffuses freely
through unit membranes, regards them as semi-permeable
and proposes they equilibrate differences in osmotic pressure.
Exchanging three sodium for two potassium ions maintains
membrane potential. The active transport of water is essential.
Mevalonate, residue of saturated fat breakdown, is named after
the herb Valerian, it was formerly known as all heal. Water is
transported by a tDNA exchanging mevalonate-5-phosphate for
The posterior pituitary gland packs hormones oxytocin and
vasopressin with selenium. Vitamin E, α-tocopherol conveys
energy as solitons, it oxidizes Se to SeO3=, carrier exchanging
Ca++ for Mn++. Mn is cofactor for enzymes converting
mevalonate to cholesterol, essentially a byproduct of this process,
it’s feedstock for steroid hormone synthesis. Factors controlling
blood pressure, Fig 8.
1. Inherited tDNA mutants
2. Saturated fat consumption
3. HLA and LPA cholesterol transporters
4. Manganese nutrition
5. Exercise affecting calcium levels
6. Sulphur competes with Se
7. Methyl mercury competes with dimethyl Se33
8. Se deficiency
Sedimentary rocks incorporate Se from fossilized early life. Plate
tectonic subduction introduced them to igneous deposits. Breast
cancer distribution correlates with surface geology34,35. Drinking
hard water from limestone and water percolating through volcanic
rocks provides most Se. Sea floor manganese nodules may date from
primordial life. Animal husbandry36 evidences Se dependency;
Se supplements prevent cattle getting hypertension in pregnancy,
protect sheep grazing pasture treated with super-phosphate against
white muscle disease and pigs en route to market succumbing to
heart failure. European royal families’ Se-rich diets may explain
Pandemic Se deficiency explains deaths from heart attacks,
strokes, cancers of tissues specializing in water pumping: breast,
bowel, cervix and prostate and pre-eclampsia. Its causes include:
• Precipitation during water purification37
• Agriculture using Se-deficient soils
• High temperature food preparation and preservation38
• Insufficient dietary Se
• Foods rich in Se are expensive
Apart from correspondents’ occasional suggestions for revisions
this is all my own work. See also my thesis, Some biochemical
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