C1q tumor necrosis factor related protein 4 gene( a new cytokine) was recently discovered in the sea star genome.Its genome and role were presented in a recent report
Haithem A.M. Farghali*, Hala R. Ali, Moustafa R.K. Ali and Ahmed H.A. Osman
Raises in the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections need novel methods for control. It is currently clear that a nanotechnology-driven method using nanoparticles to target and terminate pathogenic bacteria can be positively applied. Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) is a hopeful minimally-invasive antibacterial therapy as well as oncological treatment strategy where plasmonic nanoparticles are used to transform near infrared light to localized heat to cause cell death, mainly through apoptosis and/ or necrosis. The objective of this work was to detect the clinical bactericidal activities of gold nanorods (AuNRs) using plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) against pathogenic extended spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESβL) Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as apoptotic actions against pyogenic membrane of chronic subcutaneous fistula had no tendency to heal in clinically affected eight years old Griffon female dog. The fistula was infiltrated along its pyogenic wall and intraluminal in multiple spots with AuNR at 7.5 nM concentration and then exposed to an 808 nm diode laser with power of 5.8 W/cm2 and spot size about 5.6 mm2. The PPTT session was repeated every two weeks for four successive sessions. The evaluations of the curative response were done through clinical, bacteriological and histopathoilogical repetitive examinations. Clinically, the purulent discharge decreased in the quantity until it disappeared at the third PPTT session and complete regression of the fistula occurred after the fourth PPTT application. Bacteriologically, Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate showed dramatic reduction in colony forming unit (CFU) count after first session and was completely absent at the fourth PPTT session. Regarding histopathology of the tissue specimens from infected fistula when the case was admitted to the clinic, there was massive liquefied necrotic area infiltrated mainly by neutrophils represented as grade +3 and after first session of PPTT, there was circumscribe necrotic area infiltrated by few numbers of neutrophils and represented as grade +1. After third session of PPTT, complete absence of necrotic tissues was recorded and new fibrous connective tissue formation was observed. Altogether, these outcomes powerfully recommend that AuNRs could be a motivating choice to control antibiotic resistant bacterial infections as well as pyogenic conditions which have no tendency to heal.
Hussien. M. EL-Shafei
Grey Mullet Mugil cephalus L, fingerlings were chronically exposed to sub lethal concentrations of lead(Pb) (0.1 and 0.4 mg/L for twenty eight. The changes in the leucocytes and serum glucose, protein, and total cholesterol of the fish were determined every seven days in a renewable static bioassay system. At the end of the study, these parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in the Pb - exposed groups when compared with the control group. Showing a pronounced leuocytosis in the Pb-exposed fish. The magnitude of increase was influenced by increasing of exposure period and Pb concentration. The Pb exposed fish were significantly (p<0.05) hyperglycemic and hyperbcholesteremic. The serum glucose levels on the 7th day were 26.50 ± 2.12 g/dl and 30.50 ± 0.70 g/dl in the fish exposed to 0.1 and 0.4 mg Pb /L respectively. On the 28th day , the serum glucose concentrations were 52.50 ± 2.12 and 70.00 ± 2.83 g Pb /dl in the groups exposed to 0.1 and 0.4 mg Pb/L , respectively. The cholesterol concentration increased from 113.5±3.53 mg Pb /dl on day 7 to 208.0 ± 1.80 mg/dl on day 28 in the group exposed to 0.1mg Pb /L. When the fish was exposed to 0.4mg Pb /L lead acetate, the cholesterol concentration increased from 131.5 ±3.54 in the first week to 288± 5.19mg Pb /dl on 28th day of the study. The serum protein concentration was also significantly (p< 0.05) increased in the Pb – exposed groups when compared with the control group, it increased from 4.04±0.06mg Pb /dl on day 7 to 5.30±0.05 mg/dl on day 28 in the fish exposed to 0.1mgPb /L. When the fish treated with 0.4mg Pb /L , the serum protein increased from 4.45±0.37 mg/dl on day 7 to 6.18±0.19 mg Pb /dl on day 28, respectively. These changes are indicative of stress imposed on the fish by lead and could be used as indices of lead poisoning.
Tahani Ali Bin Ali
Down syndrome is a common congenital disorder affecting 1/1000 live births. Newborns and children with Down syndrome may present with many hematological problems. In addition, benign and malignant abnormalities of the blood count and blood film, which may manifest at any age
Mohamed M M El-feky*, M A Essa, A G M Osman, S M SHALABY and A M Moustafa
This study aims to evaluate the effect of different graded levels of local yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the growth performance of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. At the start of the experiment, a total number of 140 healthy fish were chosen. The fish were weighed and then divided into seven experimental groups of 10 fish per 70 –L aquarium. The water was replaced every day, but the fecal matters were siphoned out daily. Each aquarium was supplied with dechlorinated water and aerated continuously by an air compressor, so that oxygen levels were kept close to saturation. Dissolved oxygen, pH and total NH3-N were monitored in each aquarium during the experimental period. Dissolved oxygen levels were monitored close to air saturation (5.6mg/L) and pH was always on the alkaline side (7.9), while NH3-N not more than 0.097mg/L and temperature 25.5co as well as photoperiod12:12 Light: Dark). One control and six experimental diets duplicate (B2%, B1%, B0.5%, B0.2%, B0.1%&B0.05%) were arranged. Baker yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) was not included to the control group; however a (B2% at B0.05%) group was supplemented with baker yeast at 20.0, 10.0, 5.0, 2.0, 1.0and 0.5 g per kg diet respectively.
The experimental diets were formulated to contain approximately 33.64 % crude protein. The feed was provided two times a day (10:00 am and 2:00 pm). All the experimental groups were fed the experimental diets at a rate of 3% of the live body weight of the fish. The experimental aquaria were inspected daily to remove food wastes and dead fish. The conclusion from the economic point of view the use of cheap local baker’s yeast for African catfish increases their growth and production under farming conditions. The present study indicates that live baker’s yeast positively enhance some hematological and physiological parameters as a results of the feed utilization, growth and production performance of African catfish.
Omneya F Abu El-Leel*, Rabie.M.M.Yousef.
The present work was conducted during the two successive seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 at the experimental farm of ElQuassassin Hort. Res. Station, Ismailia Governorate, and Biotechnology Laboratory, Horticulture Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Egypt. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three compost fertilizer levels 4, 6 and 8 ton per Fadden using five cultivars of bitter fennel on growth, fruits yield and volatile oil production of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). These cultivars were Netherland, Indian, Azoricum, German and Local fennel. Several trails were studied including growth and yield production, biochemical (the volatile oil) and molecular genetic (RAPD- and ISSR-PCR) characteristics under Egyptian sandy soil. The results showed that increasing compost level progressively (form 4 to 8 ton/ Fed) and significantly increased the values of such parameters. Azoricum cultivar was superior to other cultivars under study, as it showed the best growth in terms, fruits yield, fruit volatile oil (%) and volatile oil production per plant and Fadden. The main compounds in all fennel volatile oils were: Anethole, Estragole, Fenchone and Limonene. The highest percentage of Anethole found in German cultivar, while the lowest percentage found in Local cultivar, where the highest percentage of Estragole (= Methyl chavicol ) compound undesirable found in Local cultivar, while the lowest percentage found in Netherland and German cultivars. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular fingerprinting markers were employed as genetic markers for the assay of the genetic relationship of five fennel cultivars. In RAPD analysis, 10 selected primers displayed a total of 98 amplified fragments, in which 60 (61.22%) were polymorphic fragments. Thirty-one out of 98 RAPD-PCR fragments were found to be useful as cultivar-specific markers. The largest number of RAPD-PCR markers was scored for Indian variety (68 markers), while the lowest (49 markers) was scored for Netherland variety. In the meantime, the highest number of RAPD-PCR cultivar-specific markers was generated by primer OP-C04 (7 markers), while the lowest number of RAPD-PCR specific markers (1 markers) was generated by primers OP-A13 and OP-B04. In ISSR analysis, 4 of the tested ISSR primers generated variable banding patterns. A total of 26 out of 34 ISSR fragments were polymorphic. Eleven DNA amplified fragments were considered as cultivar-specific markers. The cultivars distribution on the consensus tree according to the banding patterns of RAPD differed from that based on ISSR. This may be due to the possibility that each technique of amplified different parts of the genome. Therefore, it would be useful to use a combination of the banding patterns of the two technique in order to use more segments sites of the genome that verify the validity of the consensus tree.
Milk is a complex liquid, which contains many different species, for example proteins, fat, minerals etc. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The proteins can be divided into two groups: caseins and whey. Whey proteins are about 20 wt % of the total protein amount in milk, whereas the caseins corresponds 80 wt % of the total protein content in milk. The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are “casein micelles” which are aggregates of several thousands of protein molecules. The micelle is considered to be spherical and the diameter is in the micrometer size.
The caseins can be divided in four types: αs1-‐casein, αs2-‐casein,α-‐casein, and α-‐ casein. ß-‐casein is one of the most abundant caseins and it also self-‐assembles to larger aggregates. In this thesis we have used a simple model to try to capture how electrostatic interactions affects the structure of α-‐casein micelles in milk. The micelles have been modeled as hard spheres, with a central net charge of -‐ 140e, and a radius of 75 Å. These parameters have been taken from experimental data published in the literature. The structure of the solution has been studied by comparing the radial distribution functions for different solution conditions, such as the salt concentration and valency, pH, and the temperature.
Popular scientific description: Milk is a complex liquid, which contains many different species, for example proteins, fat, minerals etc. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. The proteins can be divided into two groups: caseins and whey. Whey proteins are about 20 wt % of the total protein amount in milk, whereas the caseins corresponds 80 wt % of the total protein content in milk. The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are “casein micelles” which are aggregates of several thousands of protein molecules. The micelle is considered to be spherical and the diameter is in the micrometer size. In this thesis we have used a simple model and computer simulations to try to capture how electrostatic interactions affects the structure of α-‐casein micelles in milk. The micelles have been modeled as hard spheres, with a central net charge of -‐140e, and a radius of 75 Å. The volume fraction of was set to 5%, which is the actual volume fraction in the real product. The structure of the solution has been studied by comparing the radial distribution functions for different solution conditions, such as the salt concentration and valency, pH, and the temperature.
It was noticed that due to the fact that the micellar charge is very large, the electrostatic repulsive interaction dominates, and the mean distance between the micelles are almost always obtained. Moreover, an increase of the temperature does not affect the structure at all i.e. the entropic contribution due to increased temperature can be neglected in comparison with electrostatic repulsion between the micelles. Also, there might also be an influence of the electric permittivity since it was kept constant during the simulations,
When the salt concentration was increased to 80 mM, which corresponds to the ionic strength in milk, the structure of the α-‐casein micelles resembles the structure of an ideal gas i.e. the electrostatic repulsive interactions are screened.
Amnah M. Hasanain
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is being widely used in mosquito control programs. However, large-scale production of this bacillus is expensive due to the high cost of the production medium. In this study, we attempted to develop a cost-effective medium, based on locally available raw materials which is available in plenty as waste product from several industries. The results of the optimization studies showed that the optimum pH is at (7.2) and the optimum incubation temperature at (30˚C) using standard nutrient broth (NB) media. Raw materials (wheat bran, rabbit feed, cabbage leaves, potato tubercles, and cactus extracts as carbon and protein sources were tested. In addition, seawater and stock solution as mineral sources were also prepared to select the most appropriate growth media. 35 trials (single or in combination) from those materials were experimented. The growth was determined by spectrophotometer at 600 nm. Medium composed of cactus extract and seawater was shown to be superior to other media for the growth of B. thuringiensis.
In conclusion, the finding of this cheap formulation should contribute to the reduction of the cost of B. thuringiensis bioinsecticide production. This would encourage local large scale production
Ahmad Ali Shahid*, Aleena Khalid, Syed Muhammad Nauman Gillani, Wajeeha Batool Chaudhary, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan
Cotton is very important cash crop of Pakistan and due to non-motile nature of the plants it is susceptible to different kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. Lethal threat to cotton is cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) which belongs to family Geminiviridae and genus Begomovirus. Geminiviridae is often associated with sub viral agents called DNA satellites. These small pathogenic viruses which are transmitted by insects are responsible for various diseases in cotton crop. These defective interfering particles are associated with the infection like Begomovirus which is having monopartite and bipartite genomes. Our study is concerned with the DNA ß or betasatellite component of cotton leaf curl virus which is playing a tender role in cotton crop damage. Plants positive for betasatellites were confirmed for this study first by using specific primers. Then viral titre of full length virus or original virus was identified by using molecular techniques like southern blotting and real time PCR. After the detection of defective virus by southern blotting correlation study has been done between defective betasatellites and cotton leaf curl virus effected plants. Plants containing different symptoms were used in this study. Viral titers for different plants was compared with the positive plants for betasatellites. This correlation study between betasatellites and CLCuV depicts the role of betasatellites in the symptom advancements and their number is higher in highly affected plants. If infection is acute then number of betasatellites is higher. Our study helps to focus on the need to investigate another class of defective virus (alphasatellites) and their role in the infection.
Background: Nutritional status has a strong impact on children’s survival as malnutrition and diseases are linked together synergistically2. There is evidence that shows that protein-calorie malnutrition contributes to increased susceptibility to infections in children and diarrheal infections can predispose them to malnutrition3, 4. Many risk factors have been identified for malnutrition in such age groups, such as inadequate diet, restriction of certain of food during illness (i.e. complementary feeding like potato, banana etc.), high illiteracy rate and the poor feeding practices of mothers3, 4.
Methods: 332 mothers having children under five years of age were interviewed from clinics of a tertiary care Hospital during June to December (2013), through non-probability convenient sampling using a structured questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses was performed on SPSS 19.
Results: A total of 332 mothers were included in the study showed that mothers between the ages 26 and 30 years had correct feeding practices comprising of almost 44.9%, while mothers less than 25 years of age had incorrect feeding practices. Higher the mother’s education status (p-value 0.000) was associated with the correct feeding practices almost 50%. Mothers working status was also found to be affecting the feeding practices (p-value 0.002) as mothers who were house wives had correct feeding practices 39.3% than those mothers who were employed.
Conclusion: Study indicates that there is a need of right dietary awareness amongst mothers so their dietary practices during diarrheal infections can combat malnutrition in children.
Biocore Publishing Group
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