Margaret Kweku, Peace Nyavor, Fafali Bani, Wisdom Kudzo Axame, Richard Owusu, Wisdom Takramah, Mohammed Takase, Elvis Tarkang*, Martin Adjuik
Increasing rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a major threat to the health of populations in both developed and developing countries. This study was therefore undertaken to examine the prevalence and awareness of DM2 among traders who are second highest occupation besides farming in urban and rural communities in the Hohoe Municipality.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study carried out among 628 (18-65 years) adult traders residing in urban (330) and rural (298) communities. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge on DM2. Standard protocols were used for anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Capillary blood sugar was measured after participants fasted for 8 hours. Chi-square statistics was used to determine associations between DM2 (dependent variable) and other independent categorical variables. Differences in Means were determined using the t-test, and multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the strength of association between DM2 and possible risk factors.
The overall prevalence of DM2 including those who were on treatment was 52 (8.3%), out of which 17(2.7%) were diagnosed while 5.6 % were undiagnosed. Of the 17 diagnosed diabetics, 10 (58.8%) could not control their blood sugar level. The prevalence at the time of the survey was 45 (7.2%), of which 1.6% were diagnosed and 5.6% were undiagnosed. The prevalence was significantly higher among rural (10.7%) as compared to urban traders (3.9%) (p<0.001). Of the 45 diabetics, 13 (28.9%) were from urban whilst 32 (71.1%) were from rural settings. Of the 13 urban DM2 cases, 9 (69.2%) were diagnosed whilst of the 32 cases from rural, 26 (81.3%) were undiagnosed. No formal education, single traders and mobile traders were 0.22, 0.08 and 0.30 times less likely to become diabetic [OR=0.22 (95% CI: 0.06-0.82); p=0.024], [OR=0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.91); p=0.042] and [OR=0.30 (95% CI: 0.11-0.88); p=0.028] respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of undiagnosed and uncontrolled diabetes is in alarmingly high proportions among traders in rural communities in the Hohoe municipality. These findings highlight the need to quantify the burden of the disease in all settings and identify effective preventive intervention and treatment strategies across Ghana.
Margaret Kweku, Wisdom Takramah, Wisdom Kudzo Axame, Richard Owusu, Mohammed Takase, Elvis Tarkang*, Martin Adjuik
Background: Malaria due to P. falciparum remains one of the most important causes of morbidity and early mortality in endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the prevalence and factors contributing to malaria prevalence among children under five years in urban and rural areas in the Hohoe municipality of Ghana.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey involving children less than five years in 30 communities. Information was collected on the background of the children, ownership and use of LLIN and fever. Anthropometric indices and axillary temperature were measured, as well as RDT and blood film for malaria parasites and haemoglobin levels. Proportions were analyzed using chi square, and t-test was used to compare differences in means. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine association between dependent and independent variables.
Results: A total of 1,697 children from rural (1,435) and urban (262) were surveyed. LLIN ownership and use was significantly higher among rural than urban participants (95.5% vs. 87.8%; p<0.001) and 76.7% vs. 51.2%; p<0.001) respectively. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in rural than urban (42.5% vs. 25.2%; p<0.001) as indicated by RDT and by microscopy, (28.5% vs. 16.0%). Children aged between 24-35, 35-47 and 48 and above months were 1.64, 2.06 and 2.47 times more likely to have malaria compared to younger ones [OR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.13-2.38); p=0.009], [OR=2.06 (95% CI: 1.41-3.03); p<0.001] and [OR=2.47 (95% CI: 1.68-3.63); p<0.001] respectively. Fever children were 3.36 times more likely to have malaria than those without [OR=3.36 (95% CI: 1.58-7.16); p=0.002]. Children with normal haemoglobin and mild anaemia were 0.37 and 0.68 times less likely to have malaria compared to those with low haemoglobin level [OR=0.37 (95% CI:0.25-0.54); p<0.001] and [OR=0.68 (95% CI:0.47-0.99); p<0.042] respectively. Those with history of fever within 48 hours and one week were 1.98 and 1.74 times more likely to have malaria [OR=1.98 (95% CI:1.58-2.48); p<0.001] and [OR=1.74 (95% CI:1.37-2.22); p<0.001] respectively. Malaria was 2.2 times more likely to occur among children residing in rural than urban areas [OR=2.2 (95% CI: 1.57-3.09); p<0.001]. Farmers’ children were 1.44 times more likely to have malaria compared to those unemployed [OR=1.44 (95% CI: 1.05-1.96); p<0.022]
Conclusion: Malaria prevalence was higher among rural than urban children despite higher LLIN ownership and usage in rural areas. Contributing factors to malaria include age of child, fever, type of community and occupation. Further investigations are required to establish reasons for high malaria prevalence among rural resident children. Also, additional control measures are needed to reduce the burden of malaria in rural areas of Ghana.
Marques FCC*, Sufredini I, Georgevich Neto R, Santos CC, Giovani EM
Until some time ago it was relatively rare, the presence of foreign bodies in the sinuses of the face and the most commonly found ones were of residual roots or even of dental elements that by intimal conditions were introduced in the maxillary sinus, practically being remnants of perforating traumas. With the advent of the Age of Implantology, it has become more common to find cylinders introduced into the maxillary sinuses, mainly due to failure in surgical planning, lack of preparation of the specialty, or even failures at the time of cylinder placement, culminating in an important iatrogeny. The frontal and maxillary sinuses are the most frequently involved although there are reports involving the ethmoid and sphenoidal sinuses. This article reports the case of a patient with a foreign body in the maxillary sinus, the removal of which was performed using the Caldwell-Luc technique, with successful surgery, presenting good patient recovery.
Biocore Publishing Group
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