Space Weather and Tachysystolic Sudden Cardiac Death(Scd) -Lessons from Clinical Cosmobiology
This old proverb is for Mors certa, hora incerta (Death imminent, time not known) affect our life and plans. Most sudden deaths are of cardiac
origin –Sudden Cardiac death (SCD) Despite It’s one of most often groups of sudden death, especially in middle and old age Despite
very often of SCD great progress in diagnostics and prevention we still are witness
About Space Weather Activity (SA)
We are steady under influence of Space Weather components.Geomagnetic
Activity (GMA), Cosmic Ray (Neutron) Activity (CRA).
Neutron on the surface of our planet (Imp/min.)the indicator of
CRA. SA and GMA are correlated by r= 0.5, p<0.0001. Both SA
and GMA areי inverse related to CRA and serve as a shield of our
Planet from CRA. SA/CRA r-= - 0.85 , p<0.0001; GMA/CRA=r=
-0.66, p<0.0001.In the last years studies were published confirming
CRA links with cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this paper is
to review studies in the field of SCD In connection with Space
Weather effects , accompanying our life from conception to death.
SCD- sudden cardiac death
GMA -geomagnetic activity, SA-solar activity.
NA- neutron activity
AMI-acute myocardial infarction
VF- ventricular fibrillation
ICD -implantable cardiac device
AF- atrial fibrillation
BBB-bundle branch block
Space Weather as an object of SCD studies is discussed in
the literature for a long time. We studied this problem since the
middle of the last century, and published our observations in the
last two decades of the Century (1-2) and in later studies (3-8)
the progress in Space exploration human astronauts-cosmonauts
history and knowledge in space physics , computerization of
physical data opens new possibilities to learn details of Environmental
Physical Activity links with human health and medical
We used to compare SCD with a number of physical
factors : Solar Activity (SA), represented by Sunspot Number
(that was introduced by Swiss astronomer Wolf in the XIX C.-
1848)) , Solar Flux at 2500 MGH and 10.7cm wavelength
Geomagnetic Activity (GMA) According to A and K indices and
divided in Quiet (A-0-7), Unsettled (A- 8-15), Active (A -15-29)
and Stormy (A- ≥ 30); Cosmic Ray Activity (CRA) Measured by
Neutron Activity on the Earth’s surface in Impulse/minute (imp/
Data about Space Weather Components and SCD
1. 43 SCD , out of the hospital, with postmortem examination
(1974- 1977): ( Solar-Terrestrial Predictions, 1980. Boulder, Co.)
Quiet GMA- 0.055 daily; Active, Stormy GMA days- 0.018, p>
2. SCD (n=480) IN 1229 Quiet GMA days -0.1456; SCD 1N 265
Stormy GMA days -0.1079, p<0.01) (1993, Reviews in Clinical &
Basic Physiology and Pharmacology).
3. SCD (n=651) correlation with GMA level (I°-IV°) r= -0.804;
P=0.05) .(J.of Clin. & Basic Cardiology, 1999.2)
4 . At a day of extreme high GMA in year 2000 , July 14, the “ Bastille
Day Event” (strongest GMA storm in Solar Cycle 23) SCD
were absent in a city that had 152 such events in 1998-1999, SCD
inverse correlated with daily GMA by p=- 0.512, p=- 0.50 for
male and p= - 0.26 for woman). At all July ,2000 SCD WERE INVERSE
CORRELATED WITH GMA (r=-0.35, p=0.05) ((Seminars
in Cardiology 2002, 8, 3).
5. SCD (n-848, 579-68.28% male) higher Neutron Activity (NA)
(imp/min) in SCD accompanied by 1.myocardial rupture,2. Repeated
AMI, and Coronary Atherothrombosis without fresh AMI
(mostly arrhythmic and in Younger patients). Daily Neutron activity
for all 2002-2004 time was 8299+- 294.2 imp/min; the
highest Neutron Activity was at days with SCD and myocardial
rupture (8567imp/min), p with all days of SCD =0.0037). (JBCPP,2006,17,1).
6. In hospital cardiac arrhythmia in AMI patients: number of patients,
n=14529, 8586 male years 1983-2001). Female age average
70y., male 60y. 13.7% male and 14.3 female AMI patients had
cardiac arrhythmia in the Acute stage of AMI .0.52% combined
Atrial and Ventricular Fibrillation.Atrial Fibrillation and Bundle
Branch Block (BBB) -2.4%. Left BBB 7.76%; Right BBB -4.75%,
all BBB-5.55%. II0-III0 degree AV Block – 5 .5%. Sinus Bradycardia
GMA in inverse correlated with cardiac arrhythmia
(r=0.98, p=0.01; ratio of VF / level of GMA inverse correlated in
male patients (r=-0.96, p=0.035; on days of IV degree (Stormy)
GMA VF in female patients was twice as in male : 9.09%/ 4.15%
Chi Square 5.179, p=0.02. At days of LOWEST GMA (I0) IT
WAS MORE CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (P=0.0006), new AF
(p=0.039), atrial and ventricular Tachycardia ( p=0.01). For VF
–non significant, as a result of a high number of VF in female patients
at IV0 level of GMA. (Seminars in Cardiology, 2004,10, 3.).
7. In 85 patients with implanted Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD)
, 73 male, most with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy. in years 1995-
2006 discharges for life threatening arrhythmia (VT,VF) inverse
correlated with GMA level at r=-0.974, p=0.02. The Neutron Activity
for the all observation period were 8805.33+- 411.4 imp/
min. -4383 days ( For days of VT,VF -284 days , 580 treatments)
were 9246.8+- 299.0 imp/min. (p<0.0001) (Cardiology Journal
8. Implatable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Geomagnetic ActivityMayo
Clinic study involving US, Italian and Chech cardiologists
(February, 2015,). ( 25 ). 59468+-11397 patients. Results: inverse
correlation between GMA and ICD discharges for life threatening
cardiac arrhythmia (VT,VF) -P=- <0.0001, and, also, Antitachycardia
Pacing were seen. (Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2915,90,2).
(25). (The authors quoted 9 our publications in this study).
9. Electrical Heart Storm (EHS) ( 3 or more VT, VF episodes daily
)and Environmental Physical Activity, Pace ,August 2014.).At
days of EHS it was a significant higher Neutron Activity (8896+-
711.9 imp/min. in 5114 days of total observation versus 82, 82
pts., 71 men. on days of EHS (1999-2012y.) with Neutron Activity
9118.+-519.8 imp/min.(p=0.0001). Here also we have the link between
Electrical Heart Instability and Cosmic Ray (Neutron)Activity
association with the most severe cardiac arrhythmia -EHS.(PACE, August 2014) (1-10) Daily neutron activity (Imp./min.) on days (N=82) of Electrical
heart storm (EHS) and total observation time (1999-2012)
The cosmophysical data came from Space Science Institutions in
the USA,Russia,Finland. (11-17). The presented data show that
SCD related to tachysystolic cardiac arrhythmia (VT,VF, excluding
asystole ) is linked with Cosmic Ray (Neutron) activity. Neutrons
on the Earth surface are markers of Cosmic Ray activity.
The energy of Cosmic ray includes very high energy fractions,
achieving 1020-22 Electron -Volt. The maximal terrestrial
limit of energy is accepted as 1019 Electron- Volt , and only the
assumption of the thesis that Cosmic Ray are outside (but close)
to our Galaxy prevent us of necessity to change many physical
equations, including to them the Plank coefficient. Under action
of such energies the atoms, contacting with Cosmic Ray under
unprecedented pressure impress their electrons in their nuclei,
transforming to Neutrons .
The Neutrons migrating from the periphery
of our Galaxy close to our Planet , serve as a marker of
Cosmic Ray Activity. (18-22) Additional possibilities of Neutron
activity, in addition to be a Cardiovascular Events Trigger (23-
26), can be their interaction with Gene’s (27) , use of Air Pollution
nanoparticles as an additional way for invasion in biological
(including human) objects (28). It’s accepted that such invasion
is followed by Neutron contact with H +anions in our tissues and
other parts of body, and conversion to Protons that serve as aggressive
intruders for many elements of our organism.( 29.30 ). Solar
and Geomagnetic Activity are natural shields from Cosmic Ray
related medical events, including part of SCD. (31).
1. Tachysystolic Sudden Cardiac Death (related to Ventricular
Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation) (VT,VF) is significantly
more often in conditions accompanied by higher Cosmic Ray
(Neutron) activity and ,also, lower Geomagnetic Activity (GMA).
2. Additional (artificial magnetic field), maybe, can serve as preventive
measure for such arrhythmia candidates.
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