Effect of Chia Seeds (Salvia Hispanica) Supplementation on Buckwheat Flour in the Development of Gluten Free Bread
Bread is the most often consumed cereal item, hence study was conducted to develop a bread which is most suitable to all types of person
having disease such as celiac disease as well as other diseases. Most of the available reports on Celiac Disease are from northern India
(Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh) where wheat is the staple cereal in the diet. Therefore, the study was conducted
to see the effect of chia seeds supplementation in the development of gluten free buckwheat bread. Chia seeds belongs to the mint family
(Labiatae) and are considered a pseudo cereal. Chia seed is usually rich in omega 3 (ALA), protein and fat and its completely gluten
free, chia seeds also have high levels of minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorus. And it’s rich in dietary fiber (up
to 30% of the total weight Chia seed is considered as a Dietetic Nutritional Supplement by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Chia seed and ground whole chia seed as a novel food ingredient intended for use in bread (EFSA, 2005) common buckwheat flour
which is also equally nutritionally adequate were integrated at different proportions, with the aim of improving the nutritional value
of buckwheat bread. The Buckwheat bread was optimized first with a different proportions of Rice flour (Buckwheat flour: Rice flour,
50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20) and subjected to sensory evaluation, results indicate that 50:50 was overall most acceptable optimized proportion
as compare to other proportions, hence 50:50 was selected as control in which chia seeds were supplemented at three different
levels (5%,10% and 15%).These breads were subjected to sensory evaluation and it was found that buckwheat bread (50:50) with 10%
chia seeds was most acceptable as compare to control bread. Both breads control and buckwheat bread enriched with 10% chia seeds
were analyzed for proximate composition, total antioxidant activity, specific volume and microbiological quality. Shelf life study was
investigated at two different temperatures i.e. at room temperature (30-32°C) and refrigeration temperature (7°C) in which their moisture
content, total antioxidant activity were assessed along with microbiological quality. The results showed that chia seeds supplementation
at 10% has increased proximate composition of bread like protein, ash content, total antioxidant activity, and this supplementation also
has increased the specific volume of bread. Hence incorporation of chia seeds at 10% is suggested. The shelf life estimated was 6 days
at room temperature and 14 days at refrigeration temperature.
BIS, GFB (Gluten free bread), LDPE, IS, TAA, Celiac Disease
As rightly said by Hippocrates ‘LET food be thy medicine and
medicine be thy food’, is certainly the tenet of today. Generally,
wheat bread is a good source of irreplaceable nutrients and energy
for the human body but people with celiac disease are unable to
consume white bread because of the presence of gluten. Therefore
with increasing awareness of the disease and importance of proper
nutrition and healthy lifestyle there is a growing need for products
that have improved nutritional composition with potentially preventive
effects on health. Buckwheat is pseudocereal which does
not contain gluten therefore can be used in the production of gluten-free
products. The removal of gluten from bakery products impairs
dough‘s capacity to properly develop during leavening and
baking, which results in poor loaf volume and structure because of
batter like consistency of gluten free bread dough.
The main aim of this research is to produce gluten free buckwheat
bread with supplementation of chia seeds, which has good loaf
volume, and high nutrition value. Furthermore, extensive research
on interfacing food science, nutrition, and health is needed so that
a GFB (Gluten Free bread) with both good technological and nutritional
properties can be prepared and made more available to those
with celiac disease, which will help them adhere to a strict gluten-free
diet, so as to increase their social inclusion, and improve their quality of life. Therefore it evolved the idea of developing
buckwheat bread which is supplemented with chia seeds to exalt
the quality of gluten free bread.
Though a lot of gluten free bread is already available in the market
but the present research has been undertaken to develop bread
which is culture specific and relevant in Indian context. Therefore
blends of buckwheat and rice flours were prepared at different
proportions. Therefore there is a need of preparing a gluten-free
product which would contain rice and buckwheat flour and chia
seeds which is known as nutritionally improved one because they
contain high amount of fiber, protein minerals, and antioxidants. A
bread rich in protein, antioxidants, polyphenols and mineral content
which is not only suitable for celiac disease patient but to all
kind of diseases, by virtue of incorporation of buckwheat and chia
seeds which is in itself nutritionally suffice.
In this study we have also seen the effect of chia seeds in the development
of gluten free buckwheat bread, because generally gluten
free breads have poor bread loaf volume due to the absence of
gluten which helps in retaining the structure of wheat or refined
flour, so this study was carried out in order to improve the nutritive
value and volume of gluten free bread. Shelf life of bread using
physicochemical and microbiological analysis of bread.at two different
temperatures (Room temperature 30-32° C and refrigeration
temperature 7°C) were also identified. The acceptability of product
by consumer preference trials were also assessed.
Material and Methods
The present study was conducted to develop the gluten free bread
using buckwheat, rice flour, and chia seeds as major raw materials.
The ratio of rice and buckwheat flour (50:50), (60:40), (70:30),
(80:20) was optimize for making breads with different variations
and the optimized bread were then taken as a control. After optimization
of control bread, the optimized control bread was then
incorporated with chia seeds at different variation (5%, 10% and
15%) to get the most desired product, which had a nice crumb and
texture and flavor and overall enhanced nutritional quality, which
were taken as experimental bread.
Buckwheat flour and Rice flour was analyzed for water absorption
power. Yeast (compressed) was analyzed by using (IS: 1320-
1988), yeast Dispersibility in water was determined by using (IS:
1320-1988). Dough raising capacity was also determined by using
(IS: 1320-1988). Sugar was analyzed for its purity by analyzing its
Sucrose content and Sulfur dioxide content .Salt was also analyzed
for its purity by analyzing its Sodium chloride content. Calcium
propionate was analyzed by (IS 6031:1997). Polypouches made of low density polypropylene of 160 gauges were used.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS of procured raw material and developed
bread were analyzed by using Proximate Composition such as
Moisture Content (AOAC, 1999), Total Ash (AOAC, 1999), Protein
Content (AOAC, 1999), Crude Fat Content (AOAC, 1999),
Total Antioxidant Activity (Akowuah et al., 2005), volume/mass
ratio of breads were also assessed (IS 12711: 1989).
Microbiological Analysis were determined according to procedure given in ISI handbook of food analysis (Part 1 general methods.)
Microbiological counts were determined according to the procedure given in: IS 5402: 2002 for total plate count, IS 5401 (Part 1): 2002 for coliform count, IS 1439:1996 for E.coli, and IS
5403:1999 for yeast and mould count. Organoleptic evaluation:
-Over all acceptability of product was rated on hedonic scale (9 point scale).
Shelf –Life Study of The Product:
The samples were packed in Low Density Poly Propylene bags of 160 gauge and were analyzed on 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 days (at room temperature) for Moisture Content AOAC, 2000), Microbiological parameters such as (Total plate count (TPC) (IS:5402:2002), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (IS: 14397:1996),Coliform count (IS:
5401Part 1,2002,Yeast and Mould (IS:5403-1999) along with Total Phenolic Content. The shelf life was also assessed at Refrigeration
temperature, for Moisture Content, microbiological quality and Total Phenolic Content of the product on alternate days.
The process were standardized, and breads were prepared with different
proportions of (Buckwheat flour: Rice flour) 50:50, 60:40, 70:30 and 80:20 while other basic raw materials, and processing conditions were kept constant. Breads were then subjected to sensory
evaluation by a selected group of panelists and it was found that 50:50 proportion of Buckwheat flour: Rice flour gained maximum acceptance score. Therefore 50:50 proportions were selected for supplementation of chia seeds at different proportions (5%, 10% and 15%). The buckwheat bread with a ratio of 50:50 was prepared differently in which chia seeds were supplemented at 3 different levels (5%, 10% and 15%) and other raw materials processing conditions were constant.
Graphical representations of effect of (10%) chia seeds
supplementations in the development of buckwheat bread (50:50)
in specific volume of bread.
The prepared breads with 3 different levels of chia seeds were
subjected to sensory evaluation by a group of panelists and buckwheat
bread (50:50) with a ratio of 10% of chia seeds was most acceptable. The prepared breads control (50:50, Buckwheat flour:
Rice flour) and buckwheat bread (50:50, Buckwheat flour: Rice
flour) with 10% chia seeds were analyzed for proximate composition,
microbiological quality along with total antioxidant and total
phenolic content. Shelf life of the product was evaluated at two
different temperature i.e. room temperatures (30-32°C) and at refrigeration
temperature (7°C). During the shelf life study of the product the product was analyzed for moisture content, microbiological
quality and total phenolic content and the salient findings are as follows:-
a-Indicate Buckwheat bread (50:50, Buckwheat flour: Rice flour),
b-Indicate experimental bread with (50:50, buckwheat: rice flour,
with 10% chia seeds.)
*Values indicate Mean ± SD of duplicate readings.
Summary and Conclusion
The chia seeds bread has maximum amount of moisture, ash, protein
total phenolic and total antioxidant properties (47.7+0.141,
4.63+0.028, 4.65+0.353, 2.13415+0.002 respectively) as compared
to control bread (38.55+0.353553, 3.775+0.021213,
3.245+0.049497, 1.946+0.002828 respectively). Whereas specific
volume was least in control bread as compare to buckwheat
bread with 10% chia seeds (2.51ml/g, 3.03ml/g respectively).And
results shows that at room temperature chia seeds supplemented
buckwheat bread has maximum amount of retention of TP content
(1.0059+0.004243) as compare to control breads (1.0175+0.009)
during the shelf life study of 7 days. At refrigeration temperature
on 7th day (14 days alternatively) buckwheat bread supplemented
with 10% chia seeds has maximum amount of total phenolic
content 1.0065+0.003 as compare to control bread 0.747+0.00282.
The TP content was higher for chia seeds (10%) supplemented buckwheat bread as compare to control breads during the shelf life study period at both temperatures. Microbiological quality indicates that all microbiological parameters
assessed at two different temperatures were within the specification
range given by the EUROPEAN standards. And it can be infer that shelf life of the product was 7 days on storage at room
temperature, while the shelf life has increased up to 14 days during storage of breads at refrigeration temperature.
The prepared buckwheat bread dough with chia seeds supplementation
was analyzed for gluten content by ELISA testing and it was
found that the prepared bread dough has 7ppm or 7mg/kg of gluten
which is much below than the recommended by CODEX and FDA
(min 20ppm) which implies that the raw materials used i.e. chia
seeds and buckwheat flour were free of gluten, and due to which
the developed bread were completely free of gluten. Cost of the
product has been estimated as Rs. 30
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