This study investigates the physical properties of gluten, and bread dough with silky fowl egg, using stress relaxation test, also,
comparison with hen’s egg. Dough and gluten obtained from strong with silky fowl egg, there had a higher G(t) and H(τ) over the
whole relaxation time than those from the hen’s egg dough. This indicates that it has a stronger network structure. The stress relaxation
curves of gluten with silky fowl egg, which effect of temperature was not observed most of the time. On the other hand, in the case
of hen’s egg, changes were observed in the relaxation curve temperature rises both. Results from these, it has a useful functionality to
network formation of gluten has been clarified that silky fowl egg.
Stress relaxation, Silky fowl egg, Gluten, Bread, Dough, Hen’s egg.
The eggs of the original silky fowl are well known in the Orient
and for thousands of years have been credited with famous
medicinal and health-promoting values. However, a modern
scientific approach has only recently been applied to determine its
medicinal, chemical and biochemical components [3,9]. Recently,
silky fowls eggs are considered to be a chemical storehouse and an
excellent source of sialic acid , which is an important biological
properties[5,6] and that silky fowl eggs are considered to be an
excellent food material [7,11]. The object of the current study was
to investigate rheologic properties and oxidative stability of baked
sponge cake made with silky fowl egg compared to the cake hen
eggs of white leghorn origin.
Wheat gluten proteins mainly comprise gliadin and glutenin
. During dough mixing, gluten proteins are hydrated and form
a three-dimensional network. Which is responsible for the unique
viscoelastic property. One of the factors that determine the quality
of the bread is gluten formation degree. It is considered sufficiently
likely during gluten formation in the gliadin and glutenin, lipids are
involved particularly large. However, it is not understood in this
regard. We have previously reported , Silky fowl egg has been
implicated as an important factor that influences this phenomenon.
Already, silky fowl egg has reported that it has the function of
excellent properties for the dough. However, it is not clear with
respect to the mechanism of action for the dough or gluten and
silky fowl egg. It is determined that possible by the means clarify
this problem, the physical theory techniques, to measure the stress
relaxation primarily. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of silky
fowl egg on the bread dough, gluten, stress relaxation behavior,
also, comparison with hen’s egg.
Materials and Methods
Materials. Flour was purchased from Nippon Suisan (Tokyo,
Japan). The contents of protein, ash, lipid and water were 13.1%
(Kjeldahl, N x 6.25), 0.4%, 1.8% and 15.0 %, respectively. More
than 95% of the flour granules were sifted though the sieve of 132-
Eggs of silky fowl and hen, White Leghorn origin were a kind gift
from Canaly 21 (Co., Ltd., Gifu, Japan). Each fresh egg fraction
was obtained from the eggs collected within a day after laying and
immediately used for these experiments. Eggs were collected from
flocks of 20 silky fowls and 20 hens. A total of 10 breads were
made, two eggs being included in each bread. The same feed was given to the silky fowls and Leghorns and they were kept under the
same environmental conditions.
Preparation of bread dough samples
Bread dough was prepared using commercially available
ingredients for preparing bread dough and by employing the
straight dough method. More specifically, dough was prepared
using ingredients for preparing a loaf of bread, i.e., lipid, strong
flour, live yeast, water, sugar, salt and skimmed milk powder. The
added lipid content was 10%. Dough temperature at the completion
of mixing was 26(τ) C, and the dough was fermented for 90 min
at a temperature of 28 to 30(τ) C. The dough was then molded,
and the molded pieces were subjected to final fermentation for 60
to 70 min at a temperature of 36(τ) C and a humidity of 75%,
followed by baking for 15 to 20 min at temperatures of 200(τ)
C (top of oven) to 190(τ) C (bottom of oven). Dough subjected
to only primary fermentation was also used in this experiment.
For each type of bird egg, 5 replicate bread dough were prepared.
Each bread dough was made from two eggs, which had been laid different birds.
Preparation of gluten samples
Gluten was separated from bread dough samples as follow; bread
dough was then removed in a sieve and washed with distilled
water for 20 min by hand until the gluten was obtained. After
washing, the gluten was frozen in liquid nitrogen and freeze-dried.
The freeze-dried gluten was ground and sieved using a 250(τ) m
sieve. This sample (100g) was defatted (four times) with 500 ml
of chloroform under magnetic stirring for 20 min, filtered under vacuum, then dried in an air cupboard overnight.
Stress relaxation test
Stress relaxation test was determined according to the produce
of Del Noblie et al. . Stress relaxation behaviors samples were
measured over 2000 sec at 8% strain with strain rise time 0.1
sec, at 25(τ) C. After the sample was loaded on the mixograph
(National Mfg. Co., NE, USA), the excess sample was trimmed
off with a razor blade. The dough edges were coated with a thin
layer of silicone oil to prevent drying. The sample was taken. The stress relaxation curve was plotted as G(t) versus test time (sec),
were G(t) is the relaxation modulus (stress/stain) at any time.
The corresponding relaxation spectrum was calculated from the
relaxation modulus by the software using Alfrey’s rule .
H(τ) ) = (τ) (dG(t)/dlnt)lt = (τ)
Where (τ) is the relaxation time and the value H(ττ) in the spectrum
represents the intensity of relaxation process at that particular time
on a logarithmic scale. The rapid application of strain (5% with a
rise time of 0.1 sec) can give rise to inertial effects such as force
oscillations that can distort the data and lead to an inaccurate
relaxation spectrum at short times. Data below half of the rise
time (0.05 sec in this case) probably do not represent the true
distribution of relaxation times . Therefore, the G(t) and H((τ)
) at times <0.05 sec were plotted by a light line and the test time
0.05 sec was indicated by a vertical arrow at 0.05 sec in Figs.1-6.
Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad PRISM
(Ver. 4.0) software (GraphPad Software. Inc., California USA). Results were means of triplicate separated tests of each sample and standard deviations <10% for test time at 0.1 sec.
Results and Discussion :
Stress relaxation of bread dough and gluten
The stress relaxation curves of bread dough, and gluten with silky
fowl and hen’s eggs, plotted as relaxation moduli G(t) versus time
(sec) are shown in Figs.1, 2 and the corresponding relaxation
plotted are shown in Figs. 3, 4. From the relaxation curves and
relaxation plots for these silky fowl egg and hen’s egg doughs,
three relaxation processes were distinguished over the whole
relaxation time: one occurring at short relaxation times, and the
another occurring the longer relaxation times from 100 to 102 sec.
Respectively, which is typical relaxation behavior for polymer
with a broad molecular size distribution and network structure.
Dough obtained from strong with hen’s egg, there had a higher
G(t) and H(τ) over the whole relaxation time than those from the
silky fowl egg dough. This indicates that it has a stronger network
Fig. 1. Stress relaxation curves for bread dough with Silky fowl, and Hen’s eggs.
Fig. 2. Stress relaxation curves for gluten with Silky fowl, and Hen’s eggs.
Fig. 3. Stress relaxation spectra for bread dough with Silky fowl, and Hen’s eggs.
Fig. 4. Stress relaxation spectra for gluten with Silky fowl, and Hen’s eggs.
From the results shown the relaxation behavior of bread dough
and gluten shows two relaxation processes that occurred at short
relaxation times and the longer relaxation times from 100 to 102
sec, respectively, which is typical relaxation behavior for polymers
with a broad molecular size distribution and network structure. As
molecules that powerful this network structure, the possibility that
may be fatty acid composition in silky fowl egg yolk are involved
deeply can be considered. Probably, it is presumed from the ratio of
unsaturated fatty acid is a constituent lipids fractions in hen’s egg
yolk of often. The relationship between the network structure and
lipids fractions in egg yolk under consideration.
Effects of temperature on the stress relaxation of gluten
Figures 5, 6 shows the effects of temperature at 20, 30, and 400
stress relaxation of gluten. The stress relaxation curves of gluten
with silky fowl egg, which effect of temperature was not observed
most of the time. This phenomenon is presumed that for unsaturated
fatty acids of silky fowl egg yolk , it has a high melting point
is not observed change in the relaxation curve constituent fatty
acids of the silky fowl egg yolk. Therefore, in the case of silky
fowl egg, the influence of temperature was concluded that little
stability of the network structure of the gluten. On the other hand,
in the case of hen’s egg, changes were observed in the relaxation
curve temperature rises both. That is, the tendency of the network
structure of gluten is unstable with increasing temperature was
observed. This phenomenon suggests that the network structure of
gluten becomes unstable due to the temperature change. Since the
proportion of fatty acid composition in egg yolk in many cases,
the melting point of saturated fatty acids is low together, the fatty
acid composition of hen’s egg yolk , which then significantly
affected the temperature of the gluten network.
That the relaxation
curve of hen’s egg is highly dependent on temperature can be
considered from this. As for the mild curve about the hen’s egg,
a difference was not confirmed at 20 and 300
C, but a change was
confirmed in a mild curve at 400
C. The fatty acid composition of
the hen’s egg york is considered as ratio one caused by there being
relatively many it of the saturated fatty acid. In addition, it stops in
a level of the reasoning to the last because I do not measure fatty
acid composition. In all, it is guessed that probably constitution
fatty acid composition is more likely to greatly influence it. As
a result, it is considered that it is a cross-linked structure of the
glutelin and gliadin , gluten formation, that the fatty acid
plays an important role in this cross-link formation. Be concluded
from this result is not possible that the fatty acid is involved in the
formation of the gluten network. I would like an exercise for the
Fig. 5. Effects of temperature on the stress relaxation of gluten with Silky fowl egg.
Fig. 6. Effects of temperature on the stress relaxation of gluten with Hen’s egg.
There is a main purpose of this research in solving the food
study functional characteristic of silky fowl egg. This time, the
relationship between cloth and gluten formation, and silky fowl egg
was considered by measuring a stress relaxation curve as a means
to solve the interaction of gluten and silky fowl egg. Hen’s egg
were used as a candidate for comparison. As for the bread dough
and the stress relaxation test result of gluten containing silky fowl
egg, the very good result was obtained as compared with hen’s
egg and the stress relaxation test result of butter. It has checked
that silky fowl egg was the lipid excellent in network formation
of gluten as one of the reasons the good result was obtained. A
possibility of being a factor with fatty acid composition of egg
yolk major probably was able to be considered. From now on, it
will pursue about a relation with fatty acid composition.
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