Study on Effect of Carbonation on Storage and Stability of Pomegranate Fruit Juice
Present investigation was undertaken to prepare carbonated beverage from pomegranate juice. Fruits of Ganesh variety were used in
investigation. The yield of pomegranate juice obtained on whole fruit basis was 43 per cent while it was 68 per cent on aril weight
basis. The carbonated beverage was prepared with 5,10,15,20 percent pomegranate juice with blending of ginger juice at 1, 2, 3 per
cent by maintaining the TSS at 15 Brix and acidity 0.32 per cent. Based on the organoleptic evaluation, carbonated beverage with 10
per cent pomegranate juice and ginger juice 1 per cent was best among all the levels.
Pomegranate, Carbonated beverage, Pomegranate juice, Ginger juice.
Pomegranate Fruit Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the
most important fruit crops in India because of its adaptable nature,
high profitability and being cultivated on a commercial scale in
temperate, tropical and subtropical regions of country . Its
fruits are good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds,
mainly anthocyanins which exhibit strong chemo-preventive
activities such as antimutagenicity, antihypertension, antioxidative
potential and reduction of liver injury [12,13]. The edible part of
the pomegranate is called aril which constitutes about 52% of total
fruit (w/w), comprising 78% juice and 22% seeds [10,4]. Joseph
Priestly (1767) invented carbonation process in which carbonated
water was made by passing pressurized carbon dioxide through
water. The pressure increases the solubility and allows more
carbon dioxide to dissolve than would be possible under standard
atmospheric pressure. When the bottle was opened, the pressure is
released allowing the gas to come out of the solution, thus forming
the characteristic bubbles.
A method of preparation of carbonated RTS beverages using
pomegranate syrup was described .Preparation and storage of
carbonated ready to serve (RTS) pomegranate beverage. The
pomegranate syrup consisted of 100% fruit juice, 0.5% citric
acid and brix was maintained at 65%. The syrup was diluted to 5
times and then carbonated. Carbonated RTS beverage from acidic
tamarind pulp was developed by exposing the pulp to mixture of
food enzymes .Tamarind RTS beverage was prepared using 12.5%
tamarind extract, 0.4% acidity and adjusting to 16° brix. It was
demonstrated that carbonated coconut beverages packed in glass
bottles with crown cork seal can be safely preserved for 6 months
period at an ambient temperature range of 28- 32°C. Fruits like
pomegranate, orange, amla and lemon because of high acidity
and sharp taste are not palatable for direct consumption. To make
them fit for human consumption and available throughout the year
in the form of beverage, a reliable, controllable and reproducible
technology has been developed for production of carbonated
beverage with preservation of all the nutrients of the fruit.
Compared to fruit juices the formulations of carbonated fruit
beverage offers more variety of flavors nutrients long shelf life
and other physiological benefits with a greater margin of safety in
drink with a lower inherent cost. In the present study carbonated
pomegranate beverage was successfully prepared from the
pomegranate juice and physicochemical properties with sensory
evaluation were studied.
Materials and Methods
Pomegranate fruits of ganesh variety were obtained from
koyambedu anna fruit market from Chennai. The fruits of uniform
size, color, and maturity were used for investigation.
The moisture contents of the fruits were determined according to
standard method. (Method 934.06 of AOAC, 1990).
acidity Acidity of juice was determined by titration with 0.01 N
sodium hydroxide . The per cent acidity was expressed in
terms of anhydrous citric acid.
The sample (5 g) was kept in a muffle furnace and ashed at a
temperature not exceeding 525 ˚C for 6 hours. The ash was then
cooled in a desiccator and weighed. The ash content was recorded
as g per 100 g-fresh weights (g/100 g-fw) (method 940.26 of
Sugars and soluble solids
Total sugars, reducing sugars and total soluble solids content in the
pomegranate fruits were estimated by following the procedures of
932.12 of AOAC (1990).
Total Soluble Solids:
(T.S.S) Total Soluble Solids were determined
by using Abbes refractometer (0-32˚Bx) and expressed in degree
Determination of ascorbic acid was done by
2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol dye method suggested by Ranganna
Reducing, non-reducing and total sugars were determined by
the methods of Lane and Eynon  with slight modifications
suggested by Ranganna .
The total anthocyanin pigment were
measured by the method of Flueki and Francis  with slight
modification suggested by Khurdiya and Roy .
Evaluation It has been long recognized that enjoyment of Food
product is essential for good health. Enjoyment would mean
choice, acceptance, nutrition and whole sameness. The 9 point
hedonic scale for sensory evaluation has been used extensively
since, its developments with a wide variety of products and with
Development and Characterization of a Carbonated
The pure pomegranate extract was blended with food additives
mentioned above in accordance with standard set by the World
Health Organisation (WHO). The resulting solution is a
pomegranate soft drink. Carbonation was done in carbonation pilot
plant. To carbonate the product, it was first absorption of CO2,
which was then added to the pomegranate soft drink with the aid of
carbonator. The temperature and pressure of the carbonator gauge
varied at 100 to 120 psi and three different stages to vary the volume
of CO2 in the pomegranate soft drink represented as sample A
(Used 10 % pomegranate juice), B (Used 12% pomegranate juice),
C (Used 15% pomegranate juice) was carbonated. The product was
then bottled and sealed immediately for freshness. The product
(carbonated pomegranate drink) was then analysed to determine
the chemical content, pH, titratable acidity, brix, carbohydrate, protein and etc. Storage of the carbonated beverage
Storage of carbonated beverage
was done at two different condition viz., ambient storage ( 12.2-
33.1oC)and cool storage (5-8 oC) for a period of three months.
Statistical analysis of the results during storage of carbonated
beverage of pomegranate juice was done according to the Factorial
Completely Randomised Design (FCRD).
Results and Discussion
Physico-chemical characteristics of pomegranate fruit and juice
Fruits of pomegranate cv. Ganesh used in present investigation
were having following physical as well as chemical properties.
The values of physico-chemical characteristics of pomegranate fruits and juice used in present investigation are comparable with those
reported by Swaminathan (1977), Soodet al. (1982), Jagtap et al. (1992), Waskar and Deshmukh (1995) and Vaidya et al. (1998).
Carbonated beverages of various compositions have been reported by several workers. The values of various chemical parameters of
carbonated beverage prepared from 10% pomegranate juice and 1% ginger juice are comparable with those reported by Khurdiya et al.
(1989), Rokadeet al. (2001), Shelar (2001)and Jadhavet al. (2002).
The carbonated beverage prepared from pomegranate juice could
be stored for two months in ambient condition storage and three
months in cool storage condition. During storage of the carbonated
beverage slight changes in chemical composition were recorded.
Increase in T.S.S., pH, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and
total sugars as well as decrease in titrable acidity, ascorbic acid and
anthocyanin content was
recorded in all treatments irrespective of storage condition . The
rate of increase in T.S.S., pH, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars
and total sugars as well as decrease in titrable acidity, ascorbic acid
and anthocyanin content was higher in ambient condition than cool
storage condition. Similar findings were reported by Khurdiya et al. (1996) and Shelar (2001).
The score for all sensory attributes decreased gradually during storage period. The decrease in score for taste, flavor, colour and
overall acceptability was rapid in ambient storage condition than cool storage condition Similar findings were reported by Khurdiya
et al. (1996), and Shelar (2001).
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