Adilson Marques*, Catia Branquinho, Margarida G. Matos
Context: Bullying has been identified as an important adolescent health problem. Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between being involved in bullying either as a bully, a victim or a provocative-victim with stature and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
Design: Cross-sectional study.
Results: Data were collected from a national representative sample of adolescents in 2006 (n=4946) and 2010 (n=4724). Measures included involvement in bullying, stature, and HRQoL. Adolescents were placed in 4 groups (not involved, bully, bullied, and bully/ bullied).
Results: Adolescents classified as bullies were more likely to be boys (OR=2.23, p<0.001), taller (OR=4.79, p<0.01), and had poorer HRQoL (OR=0.97, p<0.001). Victims were more likely to be boys (OR=1.37, p<0.01), and had poorer HRQoL (OR=0.94, p<0.001). Provocative victims were more likely to be boys (OR=1.58, p<0.01), to be taller (OR=0.10, p<0.01), and to have lower HRQoL (OR=0.94, p<0.001).
Conclusions: During adolescence where differences in body height are maximal due to the heterogeneity of human development, it is important to develop bullying prevention programs aimed to prevent and reduce the occurrence of bullying. The target population is boys, those in the extreme range of height (shorter/victims; and taller/bullies) and those with a lower perception of HRQoL.
Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents is an emerging clinical problem globally in the last three decades. Previously it was thought that type 2 DM does not affect children and adolescents. There is need for high index of suspicion especially in obese children and adolescents who have positive family history of type 2 diabetes. We present a case of a newly diagnosed type 2 DM in a female adolescent previously thought to have type 1 DM. She presented with weight loss, polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. She had a positive family history of type 2 DM. She was previously managed as Type 1 DM but when hyperglycaemia was not responding to insulin therapy and fasting serum C-Peptide was within normal limit, a diagnosis of type 2 DM was made and she has since been doing well on oral hypoglycaemic agent.
Mende Mensa Sorato*
Back ground: Exclusive Breastfeeding has highest life-saving potential and about 13% of child deaths worldwide can be avoided with optimal breastfeeding. Worldwide 35% of infants breast-fed exclusively during the first four months of life even though 90% and above is recommended to benefit from the practice. Objective: To assess Levels and predictors of exclusive breast feeding among mothers with chil-dren 0-12 months in rural Chencha district.
Method and materials: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Data was col-lected by using designed well-structured questionnaire and entered into Epi-Data version 3.1 and analyzed by using SPSS window version 20. Bivariate logistic regression was performed to each independent variable with the outcome variable and variables with a p value < 0.05 were used for multivariate analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Result: Two hundred twenty six mothers with babies 0-12 months old were included in this study. The mean age of study participants was 29.1 ± (5.987) years. Mothers ANC follow-up ex-perience was 130(57.5%). The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 92(40.7%) and 144 (63.7%) had good knowledge. Maternal Age 15-24 yrs [AOR=12.02 (1.153, 25.180)]; Family size of 3 were [AOR=2.027 (0.246, 1.715)], Non-Attendance to ANC service [AOR=0.037 (0.005, 0.256)]; Good knowledge [AOR=1.288 (0.038, 5.393)] and exposure to advice concern-ing breast feeding [AOR=1.277 (0.677, 2.410)] were independent predictors of exclusive breast feeding practice
Conclusion and recommendation: In this study Practice of exclusive breastfeeding was below the world health organization recommendation which is 90% or above. Hence it is important to focus interventions towards these factors in order to increase exclusive breastfeeding Practice.
Aim of work To evaluate the effect of refractive status and axial length of the eye on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness.
Method A total of 116 eyes of 62 subjects were enrolled in the study. RNFL thickness was measured using TOPCON 3D OCT 2000.
Results Hyperopic group, as compared to normal, did not show any significant thickening for average, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants (p = 0.760 , p = 0.160, p = 0.139, p = 0.345, p = 0.762, respectively). Also myopic group, as compared to normal, did not show any significant thinning for average, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrant (p = 0.991, p = 0.746, p = 0.848 p = 0.382, p = 0.894, respectively). The RNFL thickness decreased with increasing axial length and this was statistically significant in average, superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants (p = 0.0009***, p = 0.0003***, p = 0.0031**, p = 0.0129**, respectively), except for temporal quadrant (p = 0.8118).
Conclusion Neither hyperopia nor myopia affect retinal nerve fiber layer thickness significantly. The RNFL thickness decreased with increasing axial length and this was statistically significant in average, superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants except for temporal quadrant.
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