Moataz Sideeg Alhaj
Rift valley fever (RVF) is an infectious illness with serious clinical manifestations and health consequences in humans and a wide range of domestic ruminants. The virus transmitted either by mosquito bites or through exposure to blood, body fluids or infected animal tissues. As with other viral diseases the prevention and control of RVF relies heavily on immunization of susceptible herds with safe and cost-effective vaccine, that able to confer long-term protective immunity. Interestingly, several strains of RVF vaccines have been developed and available in commercial production. The two most prominent among these vaccines are Formalin-Inactivated vaccine, and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine. Although, both are immunogenic and widely used in control programs, they proved to be accompanied by significant concerns. The first one requires multiple doses for protection, and the other has been reported to cause abortion and fetal malformation in pregnant ewes, as well as a possible reversion to virulence. Recently, a newly described RVF vaccine registered and extensively used in South Africa and Namibia named Clone13. Safety and efficacy trials proved the vaccine as safe in pregnant ewes as highly immunogenic, along with its potential for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals(DIVA). In conclusion, with the exception of Clone13 vaccine, RVF vaccines presently available in markets are not fulfill the requirements of safety and potency. Various novel candidate vaccines against RVF are under development, presumably safer and more immunogenic than currently available in markets, have not seen the light yet. Consequently, incentive plans should be introduced to companies to bring those promising candidates to markets.
Sonu Mishra and Virendra S. Gomase
In this study NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (mitochondrion) protein has been used to investigate its role in antigenicity. NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (mitochondrion) protein sequences (111 aa protein) is analyzed through different types B- cell epitope prediction methods. We found that the region of maximal hydrophilicity is likely to be an antigenic site, having hydrophobic characteristics, because the terminal regions of antigen protein is solvent accessible and unstructured, antibodies against those regions are also likely to recognize the native protein. It was seen that an antigen protein is hydrophobic in nature and contains segments of low complexity and high-predicted flexibility. The predicted antigenic protein segments of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (mitochondrion) can take active part in the host immune reactions. In future study the predicted antigenic protein NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 (mitochondrion) fragments can be used in the investigation of MHC molecules binding and it can be the first bottlenecks in vaccine design.
IBRAHIM MOHAMMAD SAEED SHNAWA
Probiotics are vaccine allied biologics, vaccine adjuvants ,oral vaccines ,vaccine prim-boost and, vaccine delivery systems .They are formed from commensal bacteria and commensal yeasts .Such candidate preparation are developed and evaluated in a way similar to that of vaccine development and evaluations with less stringent control measures . They can be of therapeutic and preventive uses both for infectious and lympho-proliferative diseases.
Water is a dielectric and thus an insulator allowing electric current only to flow when ionic material is present. The more ionic matter in the water the higher the conductivity and the less ionic matter the lower the conductivity will be. Both electrolysis and electrochemistry are involved. Electrolysis is water containing ionic matter and in particular salts and electrochemistry is a useful tool in the purification of metals, production of nanometre sized atomic silver clusters, wet photo chemistry and metal plating. Both forms are considered wet chemistry, albeit, mostly in the realm of physics. Somewhere along the way, chemists introduced the concept of ‘wet’ conductivity measurement for conducting water and also introduced fraction of the Siemen to depict variations of the Siemen such as milli and microSiemen. Soon however, the DC measurement technique in vogue as MHO, (the reversal of OHM) was abandoned and a version having alternating current as its basis was introduced and adopted. Ever since that day, there have been numerous problems.
Prabhusaran , Rajajeyakumar
Biocore Publishing Group
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